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This is the problem of the data consistency for NVRAM.
Logging  is a widely adopted mechanism to guarantee the consistency of persistent data.
If we want to modify the structure to change it to store other people’s information, such as name: XYZ and age: 28, we have to update the two fields separately (as step 1 and step 2 in the example) due to the hardware limitation.
If the system crashes right after we finished step 1 and before step 2, although the information in the data structure is not lost after rebooting, it is wrong and is not reusable now (state shown in the dashed box).
When you upgrade, you will clear your NVRAM, causing you to lose all of your saved settings.
Take any notes you will need to recreate your settings before you begin the upgrade process.
Make sure that you have secure access to power and the internet. Do not turn off the computer, close the web browser, power cycle the router, or disconnect the router from its power supply until the router has rebooted itself and the Tomato firmware screen has reappeared.
For example, in Figure 1, in write-ahead logging, an update operation would (a) first write to the log, wait until the log is persistent, and then (b) update the correspondent locations according to the log.
To maintain the consistency of persistent data, logging is a widely adopted mechanism. This paper introduces an optimized write-combined logging to reduce the writes to NVRAM log.
By leveraging the fast-read and byte-addressable features of NVRAM, we can perform a read-and-compare operation before writes and thus issue writes in a finer-grained way.
Nonvolatile memory (e.g., Phase Change Memory) blurs the boundary between memory and storage and it could greatly facilitate the construction of in-memory durable data structures.
Data structures can be processed and stored directly in NVRAM.
Thus if failure happens during the operations, we can recover the data structure to a consistent state.