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15-Jul-2017 01:50

2002 This picture is complicated by the evidence for one or more bottlenecks that reduced the genetic diversity of the surviving human population to 3000-10,000 breeding pairs around 70,000 years ago, which has been associated with the supervolcanic Toba eruption in Sumatra.

The Volcanic Winter/Weak Garden of Eden model proposed in Ambrose 1998.

Chromosomes contain a variety of markers that can be used to compare diverse populations and infer an evolutionary relationship between them.

These include the slowly varying protein polymorphisms of coding regions which are useful for long-term trends, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and non-coding region changes (mutation rates about 2.5 x 10 per base pair per generation and useful for reconstructing evolutionary history only over millions of years) insertion and deletion events (about 8% of polymorphisms, extending from one to millions of nucleotides), particularly those driven by transposable elements such as the LINEs and even more frequent SINEs (p 332), non-coding micro-satellites (mutation rate 10 due to meiotic recombination in sperm) that both evolve rapidly and are not subject to the strong selection of coding regions which can differentiate changes over the much shorter time scales of modern human migration.

Adaptions were found for resisting UV radiation (e.g.

A genetic split between the Khoisan and other Africans occurred roughly 260,000 years ago, shortly after humankind's origins and around the time of the Florisbad individual.Khoisan people then diverged into two genetically distinct populations around 200,000 years ago, the researchers calculate. doi:10.1016/20) coaxed DNA from the remains of 15 ancient sub-Saharan Africans, from a variety of geographic regions dating from about 500 to 8500 years old.The researchers compared these, along with one other ancient genome from the region, against those of nearly 600 present-day people from 59 African populations and 300 people from 142 non-African groups.The researchers suggest this both provided enhanced genetic fitness and also catalysed social networking conducive to social sophistication unique to If we consider the likely effects of the out of Africa hypothesis, we would expect that founding African populations not subject to active expansion and migration would have greater genetic diversity and that the genetic makeup of other world populations would come from a subset of the African diversity, consisting of those subgroups who migrated.

This combined with the rapid expansion of the outgoing populations is consistent with greater genetic diversity, including heterozygosity, in African as opposed to European American people (Tishkoff, S, Williams, S.The study also found that West Africans (green) can trace their lineage back to a human ancestor that may have split off from other African populations even earlier than the Khoe-San.A missing link with a Near Eastern herder population that returned to Africa.This has historical consistency with cultural accounts of Makeda, the Ethopian tale of the Queen of Sheba n in depth study into human origins (Schlebusch et al doi: 10.1126/science.1227721, doi:10.1126/science.aao6266) estimates, using ancient and modern genome data, including the benchmark genome of a boy from Southern Africa 2000 years ago, found that originated as a genetically distinct species between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago.