Dating british gold hallmarks
Paying taxes has never been on the priority list of entrepreneurs and some gold and silversmiths in Germany and the Netherlands started stamping marks on their jewelry and silver work that mimicked antique hallmarks.
A second factor was the renewed interest in antique artifacts of the applied arts that was kindled by the first World Exhibition in London (1851).
The figural trade mark (table bell) was used from 1871 to 1936. After a partnership with John Roger Arnold ("Arnold & Dent") he established himself at 82 Strand and at 33 Cockspur Street. Silver Dictionary' of A Small Collection of Antique Silver and Objects of vertu, a 1500 pages richly illustrated website offering all you need to know about antique silver, sterling silver, silverplate, Sheffield plate, electroplate silver, silverware, flatware, tea services and tea complements, marks and hallmarks, articles, books, auction catalogs, famous silversmiths (Tiffany, Gorham, Jensen, Elkington), history, oddities ...
JAMES DEAKIN & SONS: HISTORY AND INFORMATION PAGE E. After his death, the business was continued by his stepsons Frederick and Richard, followed by their successors.
It is common opinion that these marks were used only for small articles, but it is possible to find them on articles of big dimension like coffee pots and cake baskets.
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Scraping a small portion of a gold coin, or diluting a golden ornament with non-precious metals while selling it as pure gold, could in time build a small fortune and that type of counterfeiting was not uncommon in days gone by.
In present time, labour costs exceed the profits to do so.
Since pre-Roman times gold and silver have been used as currency or as the counter deposit for money and one can imagine that a not so scrupulous person, with little fear of severe punishments, would find a means to tamper with the precious metal. After his death the factory was managed by his son Eric Davenport. Similar hallmarks for sterling silver items were entered in Birmingham and in Chester (1953) Assay Offices. The firm Stewart Dawson & Co was active as jewellers and watch manufacturers at Hatton Garden London, with premises in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. STEWART DAWSON & COSTEWART DAWSON & CO LTDLondon A retail business established in 1869 by David Stewart Dawson.For estate jewelers and jewelry historians, hallmarks provide for an extra source of information to accurately date a jewelry object and determine by whom it was made.